Publications

Back to François Pachet

Books and book chapters

  1. Pachet, F. "Du signal au signe musical", ouvrage collectif, Encyclopédie de l’ingénieur, Hermes, to appear, 2001.
  2. Pachet, F. Codognet, P., "Constraints and music", Constraints journal, special issue, Kluwer, 6:1, 2001
  3. Pachet, F. "Contraintes et harmonisation en musique tonale", in "Du signal au signe musical", 6:1, 2001
  4. Carrive, J., Pachet, F., Ronfard, R. (2000). Logiques de descriptions pour l’analyse structurelle de film. Ingénierie des connaissances, Charlet, Jean Ed., INRIA, 2000
  5. Roy, P. Liret, A. Pachet, F. "The Framework Approach for Constraint Satisfaction", chapter in Object Oriented Application Frameworks, Wiley Eds., Vol. 2, to appear, 1999.
  6. Pachet, F. "Active Listening: What is in the Air ?", in "Música y nuevas tecnologías: Perspectivas para el siglo XXI", in Spanish, Miranda, E. Eds, L'Angelot, October 1999.
  7. Pachet, F. "Computer Analysis of Jazz Chord Sequences. Is Solar a Blues ?", in Readings in Music and Artificial Intelligence, Miranda, E. Ed, Harwood Academic Publishers, November 2000.
  8. Chemillier, M. Pachet, F. Recherches et applications en informatique musicale, Hermes, Collection Informatique Musicale, 1998.
  9. Pachet, F. "Musique et programmation par objets", Langages et modèles à Objets, Collection Didactique, INRIA, 1998.
  10. Mili, H. Pachet, F. "Regularity, document generation and Cyc", in ExpertMedia - Expert Systems and Hypermedia, Edited by R. Rada and K. Tochtermann, World Scientific Publishing, pp. 171-206, 1995. 

Journals

  1. Pachet, F. Qu’est qu’une mélodie intéressante ? La Recherche, numéro spécial sur les origines de l'Art, novembre 2000.
  2. Pachet, F. Roy, P. Cazaly. D. "A Combinatorial approach to content-based music selection". IEEE Multimedia, March 2000.
  3. Pachet, F. Roy, P. "Automatic Harmonization: a Survey", Constraints Journal, Kluwer, 6:1, 2001.
  4. F. Pachet. "Surprising Harmonies", International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, 1999.
  5. Roy, P. Liret, A. Pachet, F. "The Framework Approach for Constraint Satisfaction", ACM Computing Surveys, special issue on Frameworks, 2000.
  6. Pachet, F. Mili, H. Revue L'Objet,Vol. 3, N. 4, décembre 1997, numéro spécial sur Smalltalk, 1997.
  7. M. Dojat, F. Pachet, Z. Guessoum, D. Touchard, A. Harf, L. Brochard. "NéoGanesh: a Working System for the Automated Control of Assisted Ventilation in ICUs", Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Special issue on Decision Support in the Operative Theatre and Intensive Care. Volume 11 No 2, September/October 1997.
  8. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Reifying constraint satisfaction in Smalltalk. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, (JOOP), 10 (4), pp. 43-51, July/August 1997. the draft.
  9. Paquette, G. Pachet, F. Giroux, S. Girard, J. EpiTalk, generating advisor agents for existing information systems. Artificial Intelligence in Education, 1997, (7) 3-4.
  10. Pachet, F. Ramalho, G. Carrive, J. Representing temporal musical objects in the MusES system. Journal of New Music Research, 1996, (25) 3, pp. 252-275.
  11. Dojat, M. Pachet, F. Limited reuse in medical knowledge-based systems. Computers and Biomedical Research, vol 28, pp. 403-432, 1995. get the postscript file of the Laforia report.
  12. P.-Y. Rolland, F. Pachet, A Framework for Representing Knowledge about Synthesizer Programming. Computer Music Journal 20:3, pp. 47-58, Fall 1996. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  13. Pachet, F. Djamen, J.-Y. Frasson, C. Kaltenbach, M. Un mécanisme de production de conseils exploitant les relations de composition et précédence dans un arbre de tâches. Sciences et Techniques Educatives, vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 43-75, 1996.
  14. Mili, H. Pachet, F. Regularité, génération de documents et Cyc. Revue d'intelligence artificielle, vol. 9, n.2, pp. 139-164, 1995.
  15. Giroux, S. Pachet, F. Paquette, G. Girard, J. Des systèmes conseillers épiphytes. Revue d'intelligence artificielle, vol. 9, n.2, pp. 165-190, 1995.
  16. Paquette, G. Pachet, F. Giroux, S. EpiTalk, un outil générique pour la construction de systèmes conseillers. Techniques et Sciences Educatives, Vol. 1, n. 3, novembre 1994, pp. 305-336.
  17. Pachet, F. On the embeddability of production rules in object-oriented languages. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, 1995. Vol. 8, N. 4, pp. 19-24 get the postscript file.
  18. Dojat, M. Pachet, F. NéoGanesh, un système extensible à base de connaissances pour la ventilation artificielle des patients. Innovation et Technologie en Biologie et Medecine, vol. 14, pp. 267-279, 1992.
  19. Borne, I. Pachet, F. From Object-Oriented Design to Visual Programming. European Journal of Engineering and Education, Vol. 17, n. 2, 1992, pp. 195-201.

Conferences

  1. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. Gouyon, F. Extracting Rhythm from Audio Signals, SONY Research Forum, Tokyo, December 2000.
  2. Pachet, F. Rhythm as emerging structure, ICMC 2000, Berlin
  3. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. Hanappe, P. Dynamic Audio Mixing, ICMC 2000, Berlin
  4. Carrive, J. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Ronfard, R. “A language for audiovisual template specification and recognition”, Sixth International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, September 18 - 22, 2000.
  5. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. “On-The-Fly Multi Track Mixing", Audio Engineering Society (AES) 109th Convention, Los Angeles.
  6. Mili, H. Pachet, F. Metamodeling for Multidimensional Reuse, Sixth Maghrebian Conference on Computer Sciences, Sixième Conférence Maghrébine en Informatique, Fès,  01-03/11/2000.
  7. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. Hanappe, P. "MusicSpace goes audio", Sound in Space Conference, CREATE, Santa Barbara, March 2000.
  8. Pachet, F. Cazaly, D. "A classification of musical genre", Content-Based Multimedia Information Access (RIAO) Conference, Paris, March 2000.
  9. Carrive, J. Pachet, F. Ronfard, R. CLAViS - A temporal reasoning system for classification of audiovisual sequences. Content-Based Multimedia Information Access (RIAO) Conference, Paris, March 2000.
  10. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. "MusicSpace: a Constraint-based control system for music spatialization" International Computer Music Conference, Conference, Pekin, 1999.
  11. Pachet, F. Roy, P. "Automatic Generation of Music Programs", Proceedings of the CP (Constraint Programming) Conference, Washington (USA), October 1999.
  12. Pachet, F. Roy, P. Cazaly. D. "A Combinatorial approach to content-based music selection". Proceedings of the IEEE Multimedia Computing and Systems Int. Conf., Firenze, (Italy), pp. 457-462.
  13. Pachet, F. "Constraints and Multimedia", PACLP 99, Practical Applications of Constraint Technologies and Logic Programming Conference, London, March, invited Talk, The Practical Application Company Ltd, pp. 3 -13.
  14. F. Pachet. "Surprising Harmonies", CASYS, Focus Conference on Anticipation in Music Cognition,  Liège, Belgium, 1998.
  15. F. Pachet, O. Delerue. "A Constraint-based Temporal Music Spatializer", ACM Multimedia Conference, Bristol (UK), 1998.
  16. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. "Annotations for Real Time Music Spatialization", International Workshop on Knowledge Representation for Interactive Multimedia Systems, KRIMS-II workshop, Trento, Italy, 1998.
  17. Pachet, F. "Active Listening : Some Experiments", Musical Cognition and Behavior: relevance for music composing, Rome, Université La Sapienza, 1998.
  18. Pachet, F. "Sur la structure algébrique des séquences d’accords de Jazz", JIM 98, Lalonde, 1998.
  19. Delerue, O. Pachet, F. "MidiSpace, un spatialisateur midi expérimental", JIM 98, Lalonde, 1998.
  20. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. "A Mixed 2D/3D Interface for Music Spatialization", First International Conference on Virtual Worlds (VW98), Springer-Verlag LNCS, to appear, 1998.
  21. Pachet, F. Delerue, O. “Constraint-based spatialization”, Sony Research Forum, October 1998
  22. Pachet, F.  “the combinatorial approach to content-based music selection”, Sony Research Forum, October 1998.
  23. Chikhi Y, Moustafiadès J., Pachet F. "Démarche de modélisation de réseaux électriques à partir de composants structurés en points de vue", Inforsid, Montpellier, 1998.
  24. Carrive J., Pachet F., Ronfard R.. "Logiques de description pour l’analyse structurelle de documents audiovisuels", Ingénierie des Connaissances - IC '98, Nancy, 1998.
  25. Liret, A. Roy, P. Pachet, F. "Conception par objets d'un système pour combiner raisonnement formel et satisfaction de contraintes", JFLA' 98, Come, Italy.
  26. Anne Liret, Pierre Roy, François Pachet "Combining Formal Reasoning Techniques and CSP", ERCIM Workshop on constraint Programming and Processing (in conjonction with CP'97), Linz Austria, 1997.
  27. Anne Liret, Pierre Roy, François Pachet, Conception par objets d'un système pour combiner raisonnement formel et satisfaction de contraintes. Journées PRC/GDR "programmation", pôle Programmation par Objets, Rennes, 1998.
  28. Chikhi Y, Moustafiadès J., Pachet F. An approach for Building Electrical Network Models Based on Reusable Components, CESA'98 IMACS Multiconference, Computational Engineering in Systems Applications, Nabeul-Hammamet, Tunisia, 1-4 avril 1998.
  29. F. Rousseaux, F. Pachet. Acquisition des connaissances et improvisation: la Partition Intérieure Interactive, Journées d'Informatique Musicale, JIM 97, Lyon.
  30. F. Rousseaux, Meunier, J.-G., Pachet, F.. Comment penser un système d'assistance artificiel quand l'improvisation est au cœur de l'activité à modéliser ? Le cas du projet "La Partition Intérieure Interactive", IC '97 (Ingénierie des Connaissances), Roscoff, 1997.
  31. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Perrot, J.-F. A Framework for Expressing Knowledge about Constraint Satisfaction Problems. FLAIRS Florida AI Research Symposium, Daytona (Fl), 1997.
  32. Djamen, J.-Y. Pachet, F. Advice with Part-Whole and Precedence Relations in Task Graphs for Intelligent Tutoring Systems. FLAIRS'97 Special Track on Intelligent Tutorial Systems.
  33. F. Rousseaux, F. Pachet. L'espace dans le projet " La partition intérieure interactive ". Colloque Musique/Philosophie. Université Paris IV, Paris, janvier 1997.
  34. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Conception de problèmes par objets et contraintes. Journées francophones des langages applicatifs, Lyon, 1997, Gengler, M. and Queinnec, C. Eds, INRIA, pp. 169-187. get the postscript file
  35. Pachet, F. Carrive, J. Propriétés des intervalles circulaires et application à l'analyse harmonique automatique. Troisièmes Journées d'Informatique Musicale JIM 96, Caen, Cahiers du Greyc, pp.230-247, 1996.
  36. Giroux, S. Paquette, G. Pachet, F. Girard, J. EpiTalk, a Platform for Epiphyte Advisor Systems Dedicated to both Individual and Collaborative learning. ITS'96, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, n. 1086, pp. 363-371, 1996.
  37. Pachet, F. Roy, P. Integrating constraint satisfaction techniques with complex object structures. 15th Annual Conference of the British Computer Society Specialist Group on Expert Systems, ES'95, Cambridge, December 95, pp. 11-22. Best technical paper award. get the postscript file.
  38. Karsenty, S. Pachet, F. Un mécanisme hiérarchique de répétition et prédiction de tâches, in Conférence IHM'95, 7e Journées sur l'Interaction Homme-Machine, Toulouse, France, 11-13 octobre (1995), pp. 169-175, Cepadues Eds.
  39. Pachet, F. Ramalho, G. Carrive, J. Cornic, G. Representing temporal objects and reasoning in the MusES system, in International Congress on Music and Artificial Intelligence, pp. 33-48, Edinburgh University, (1995). get the postscript file
  40. Dojat, M. and Pachet, F. Representing Medical Context Using Rule-Based Object-Oriented Programming Techniques. In" Proceedings of 5th conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe, AIME'95" (P. Barahona, M. Stefanelli and J. Wyatt, Eds.), pp. 423-424. Springer-Verlag, Pavia (It), 25-28 June, 1995.
  41. Pachet, F. Roy, P. Mixing constraints and objects: a case study in automatic harmonization. TOOLS Europe '95, Prentice-Hall, pp. 119-126. get the postscript file
  42. Rolland, P.-Y. Pachet, F. Représentation de connaissances sur la programmation de synthétiseurs. Deuxièmes journées d'informatique musicale, JIM 95, pp. 123-132, Paris, 1995.
  43. Pachet, F. Wolinski, F. Giroux S. Spying as an object-oriented programming paradigm. TOOLS Europe '95. Prentice-Hall, pp. 109-118. get the postscript file
  44. Pachet, F. Vers un modèle du raisonnements dans les langages à objets. Colloque "Langages et Modèles à Objets", Grenoble, octobre 1994, pp. 111-123. get the postscript file
  45. Pachet, F. Giroux, S. Paquette, G. Pluggable Advisors as Epiphyte Systems. Calisce '94 (Computer Aided Learning in Science and Engineering), pp. 167-174, Paris, 31 août-2 septembre 1994. get the postscript file
  46. Pachet, F. The MusES system : an environment for experimenting with knowledge representation techniques in tonal harmony. First brazilian Symposium on Computer Music, SBC&M '94, August 3-4, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil, pp. 195-201, 1994. get the postscript file
  47. Pachet, F. Perrot, J.-F. Rule Firing with Metarules. Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering - SEKE '94, Jurmala, Lettonie. Knowledge System Institute Ed. pp. 322-329, 21-23 juin 1994. get the postscript file
  48. Giroux, S. Pachet, F. Des systèmes multi-agents épiphytes. Deuxièmes Journées Francophones "Intelligence Artificielle Distribuée & Systèmes Multi-Agents", Grenoble, 9-11 mai 1994.
  49. Ramalho, G. Pachet, F. From Real Book to Real Jazz Performance. International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Lièges, Belgium, juillet 1994, pp. 349-350. get the postscript file
  50. Pachet, F. An object-oriented representation of pitch-classes, intervals, scales and chords. Journées d'Informatique Musicale, LaBRi, Université de Bordeaux I, 25-26 mars 1994, pp. 19-34. get the postscript file (extended version)
  51. Pachet, F. Mili, H. Exploiting regularity in Cyc for text generation. World Congress on Expert Systems II. Lisbonne, janvier 1994.
  52. Giroux, S. Pachet, F. Senteni, A. Contrôle descendant versus structuration ascendante. 61 ème congrès de l'ACFAS, Rimouski, Canada, 17-21 mai 1993. Annales de l'ACFAS, vol. 61, p. 408.
  53. Pachet, F. Rule Base Inheritance. Conférence "Représentations Par Objets", La grande Motte, pp. 187-200, juin (1992). get the postscript file
  54. Dojat, M. Pachet, F. NéoGanesh: an extendable Knowledge-Based System for the Control of Mechanical Ventilation. 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, October 29-Novembre 1st, Paris, pp. 920-921, (1992).
  55. Dojat, M. Pachet, F. Representation of a Medical Expertise Using the Smalltalk environment: putting a prototype to work. Conférence TOOLS'7, Dortmund, Allemagne, March 31-April 2, pp. 379-390, (1992).
  56. Pachet, F. Representing Knowledge Used by Jazz Musicians. Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Music 1991, pp. 285-288, Montréal.
  57. Pachet, F. A meta-level architecture for analysing jazz chord sequences. Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Music, 1991, pp. 266- 269, Montréal. get the postscript file (both ICMC papers condensed into one Laforia tech report)
  58. Borne, I. Pachet, F. From Object-Oriented Design to Visual Programming. Proceedings of Computer-Aided Engineering and Education, Prague, Tchecoslovaquie, 3-6 Septembre 1991.
  59. Pachet, F. Reasoning with objects : the NéOpus environment. Conférence East EurOOpe, Bratislava, Tchécoslovaquie, pp. 72-87, septembre, (1991).
  60. Pachet, F. Mixing Rules and Objects: an Experiment in the World of Euclidean Geometry. ISCIS V, pp. 797 - 805, Nevsehir, Turquie 30 oct. - 2 nov. 1990.
  61. Pachet, F. A Practical Use of Metaclasses. Proceedings of TOOLS' 89, pp. 233-242, 13-15 novembre 1989, Paris.

Conference Workshops

  1. A. Liret, P. Roy and F. Pachet. "Constraint Satisfaction and Symbolic Reasoning for reactive control systems", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Constraints in Control in conjunction with the conference on Constraint Programming (CP'99), Alexandria, Virginia, USA, October 12-16, 1999
  2. F. Pachet, O. Delerue. "Constraint-Based Spatialization", DAFX (Digital Audio Effects) Workshop, Barcelona, 1998.
  3. Hafedh Mili, Francois Pachet "Exchanging Models Between Tools Supporting A Different Number of Modeling Layers" , OOPSLA Workshop on Model Engineering, Methods and Tools Integration with CDIF, 1998
  4. N. Ramaux, A. Liret, N. Fontaine, M. Dojat, F. Pachet. Consistency of Temporal Constraint Networks for the Online Medical Scenario Recognition: Binary or Nary Constraints?, ECAI'98 Workshop on non binary constraints, Brighton, 1998.
  5. P. Roy, F. Pachet. Detecting and exploiting Symmetry on n-ary constraints, Workshop on n-ary constraints, Ecai 98
  6. François Pachet, Pierre Roy "Reifying chords in automatic harmonization", ECAI 98 Workshop on Constraints for Artistic Applications, Brighton, 1998.
  7. Olivier Delerue, François Pachet, "Constraint Propagation for real time spatialization", ECAI 98 Workshop on Constraints for Artistic Applications, Brighton, 1998.
  8. Jean Carrive, François Pachet, Rémi Ronfard, "Using Description Logics for indexing audiovisual documents", International Description Logics Workshop, Trento, 1998.
  9. Pachet, F. Codognet, P. Assayag; G. Rueda, C. ECAI '98 Workshop on Constraints and artistic applications, 1998, in progress.
  10. Rousseaux, F. Pachet, F. Distinction and characterization of subjective vs objective aspects for the design of artificial assistance systems in the "AI and Music" field. Ijcai 97 Workshop on Music
  11. Mili, H. Pachet, F. Benyahya, I. Eddy, F. Report on the OOPSLA'95 Workshop on Metamodeling. Addendum to the OOPSLA'94 proceedings. ACM SIGPLAN notice. get the paper.
  12. Dojat, M. Pachet, F. Three compatible mechanisms for representing medical context implicitly. IJCAI'95 Workshop on Context in Knowledge and Reasoning Modelling. get the postscript file
  13. Pachet, F. Giroux, S. Building plan recognition systems on arbitrary applications: the spying technique. IJCAI'95 Workshop on "New generation of plan recognition systems".get the postscript file
  14. Mouton, R., Pachet, F. Numeric vs symbolic controversy in automatic analysis of tonal music. IJCAI'95 Workshop on Artificial intelligence and Music. get the postscript file
  15. Rolland, P.-Y., Pachet, F. Knowledge representation on synthesizer patch programming. IJCAI'95 Workshop on Artificial intelligence and Music. get the postscript file
  16. Pachet, F. Report on the OOPSLA'94 Workshop on EOOPS. Addendum to the OOPSLA'94 proceedings. ACM SIGPLAN notice. more on this workshop.
  17. Pachet, F. Perrot, J.-F. Report on the NéOpus system. Workshop OOPSLA sur les EOOPS, Portland, octobre 1994. more on this workshop.
  18. Giroux, S. Pachet, F. & Desbiens, J. Debugging multi-agent systems: a distributed approach to events collection and analysis. Canadian Workshop on Distributed Artificial Intelligence - CWDAI '94. Banff, Alberta, Canada, mai 1994.
  19. Pachet, F. Tutorial on "Epiphyte Programming in Smalltalk-80". Summer School of the European Smalltalk User Group, Cork, Ireland, Sept. 1994.

Habilitation

My habilitation report in postscript, or in html, also available as LIP6 report n. 97-21. Also, the slides of my presentation.

Technical Reports

  1. Pachet, F. Assayag, G. Dossier Musique et Intelligence Artificielle. Bulletin de l'AFIA n. 23 (1995). Artificial Intelligence and Music in France
  2. Pachet, F. NeOpus User's manual. Laforia technical report n. 95/23, October 1995. get the postscript file
  3. Pachet, F. Dojat, M. Représentation de connaissances temporelles hiérarchiques en NéOpus. Rapport LAFORIA n. 95/23, mai 1995.
  4. Pachet, F. Djamen, J.-Y. Frasson, C. Production de conseils pertinents exploitant les relations de composition et de précédence dans un graphe de taches. Rapport interne DIRO, Université de Montréal, n. IRO#953, février 1995.
  5. Pachet, F. Brown, F. Mouton, R. Actes des Deuxièmes journées d'Informatique Musicale. Rapport LAFORIA n. 95/13, April 1995.
  6. Pachet, F. Proceedings of the OOPSLA'94 workshop on EOOPS. Rapport LAFORIA n. 94/24, décembre 1994.
  7. Paquette, G. Giroux, S. Pachet, F. Méthodes et outils de développement de systèmes conseillers dans les environnements de formation. Rapport de recherche du LICEF, Télé-Université, Montréal, Décembre 1993.
  8. Pachet, F. Giroux, S. Paquette, G. EpiTalk, une architecture et une implantation d'un système conseiller générique. Rapport de recherche du LICEF, Télé-Université, Montréal, Novembre 1993.
  9. Pachet, F. Représentation de connaissances par objets et règles : le système NéOpus. Thèse de l'université Paris VI. Rapport LAFORIA n. 92/30. Septembre 92. get a compressed tar directory with postscript files
  10. Pachet, F. Du bon usage des méta-règles en NéOpus, n. 91/16. nov. 91. get a compressed ps file
  11. Pachet, F. Pour en finir avec le singe et les bananes, n. 91/15. nov. 91.
  12. Pachet, F. NéOpus mode d'emploi, n. 91/14. nov. 91.

Tutorials

  1. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Tutorial on "Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Objects ". IJCAI '97, Nagoya.
  2. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Tutorial on "Integrating Constraint Satisfaction with Object-Oriented Programming. 15th Annual Conference of the British Computer Society Specialist Group on Expert Systems, ES'95. Cambridge.
  3. Roy, P. Pachet, F. Tutorial on " Integrating Constraint Satisfaction in Smalltalk-80". Summer School of the European Smalltalk User Group, Genève, Suisse, Sept. 1996.
  4. Pachet, F. Tutorial on "Epiphyte Programming in Smalltalk-80". Summer School of the European Smalltalk User Group, Cork, Ireland, Sept. 1994.

Miscellaneous

  1. Pachet, F. "Constraints for multimedia", Association of Logic Progamming Newsletter, June 1999.
  2. Pachet, F. Assayag, G. Dossier IA et musique. Bulletin de l'AFIA 23 , 1995. Rapport Laforia 96/23.
  3. Pachet, F. Roy, P. (1996) Contraintes et mots-croisés. GDR Programmation, séance plénière, Orléans.
  4. Pachet, F. (1996) Objets, règles et design patterns. GDR Programmation, pôle « objets », Orléans.
  5. Pachet, F. Compte rendu des JIM'95. Computer Music Journal, 1996.
  6. Chemillier, M. Pachet, F. Compte-rendu des JIM' 96. Bulletin de l’Afia.

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